Upsc Mains Pyq Solved | UPSC GS-1 2022 Solved Mains Paper

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UPSC GS-1 2022 Solved Mains Paper

UPSC GS-1 2022 Solved Mains Paper
(Image Source: Dheyay Ias)

UPSC GS-1 2022 Solved Mains Paper

UPSC GS-1 2022 Solved Mains Paper
(Image Source: Dheyay Ias)

UPSC GS-1 2022 Solved Mains Paper

Question 1: How will you explain that medieval Indian temple sculptures represent the social life of those days? (150 Words, 10 Marks)

Introduction: Medieval Indian temple sculptures provide invaluable insights into the socio-cultural aspects of their times. They serve as visual archives, depicting the social life of the era.

Body: These sculptures depict not only religious themes but also secular scenes such as courtly life, trade, and daily activities. For example, the Khajuraho temples showcase intricate carvings illustrating a wide range of activities, including dance, music, and amorous encounters, reflecting the society’s cultural richness. Furthermore, the sculptures often feature attire, jewelry, and hairstyles that were prevalent during that period, offering clues about clothing and fashion trends.

Conclusion: In sum, medieval Indian temple sculptures are a mirror to the social life of their time, offering glimpses of cultural, artistic, and everyday aspects, making them invaluable historical records.

Question 2: Why did the armies of the British East India Company – mostly comprising of Indian soldiers – win consistently against the more numerous and better-equipped armies of the then Indian rulers? Give reasons. (150 Words, 10 Marks)

Introduction: The British East India Company’s consistent victories in India’s subcontinent despite numerical and equipment disadvantages can be attributed to various factors.


Technological Superiority: The British possessed advanced firearms and artillery, providing them with a distinct advantage in battle.

Discipline and Training: British troops were better disciplined and trained than most Indian armies, enabling them to maintain formation and follow tactical orders effectively.

Leadership and Strategy: British commanders, like Lord Clive and Sir Arthur Wellesley, displayed strategic acumen and adaptability in warfare.

Divisions among Indian Rulers: The Indian rulers were often divided due to internal conflicts, while the British maintained a unified command.

Alliances with Discontented Indian Rulers: The British strategically allied with local rulers who were dissatisfied with their contemporaries, bolstering their strength.

Conclusion: The British East India Company’s military successes were a result of a combination of technological, organizational, and strategic advantages, as well as divisions among Indian rulers.

Question 3: Why was there a sudden spurt in famines in colonial India since the mid-eighteenth century? Give reasons. (150 Words, 10 Marks)

Introduction: Colonial India witnessed a sharp increase in famines from the mid-18th century onward. This phenomenon can be attributed to several interconnected factors.


British Economic Policies: The British colonial administration prioritized cash crops like indigo and cotton over food crops, leading to reduced food production.

Land Revenue System: The imposition of the Permanent Settlement and later, the Ryotwari System, placed a heavy tax burden on farmers, leaving them with insufficient resources for agriculture.

Infrastructure and Transport: Inadequate infrastructure and transportation networks hindered the timely distribution of food supplies during crop failures.

Market Oriented Policies: The British promoted market-oriented policies, leading to hoarding and speculation during times of scarcity.

Climate Variability: Variability in monsoon patterns and natural disasters exacerbated food shortages.

Conclusion: The surge in famines in colonial India was a result of a complex interplay of economic policies, land revenue systems, and environmental factors, with severe implications for the population.

Question 4: Describe the characteristics and types of primary rocks. (150 Words, 10 Marks)

Introduction: Primary rocks form the Earth’s crust and provide insights into geological history. They are primarily classified based on their origin and characteristics.


Igneous Rocks: These form from solidification of molten magma, either on the Earth’s surface (extrusive) or beneath it (intrusive). Example: Granite (intrusive) and Basalt (extrusive).

Sedimentary Rocks: These result from the accumulation and compression of sediments over time. Examples include Sandstone, Limestone, and Shale.

Metamorphic Rocks: These originate from the alteration of existing rocks due to heat and pressure. Examples include Marble (from limestone) and Schist (from shale).

Conclusion: Primary rocks, comprising igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic types, offer vital clues about the Earth’s geological processes and history.

Question 5: Discuss the meaning of color-coded weather warnings for cyclone-prone areas given by the India Meteorological Department. (150 Words, 10 Marks)

Introduction: The India Meteorological Department (IMD) issues color-coded weather warnings to provide timely and clear information about impending cyclones.


Green Alert: Indicates no significant weather disturbance.

Yellow Alert: Suggests that the area needs to stay updated as a cyclone is forming, allowing early preparedness.

Orange Alert: Warns of adverse weather conditions, prompting people to be cautious and take necessary precautions.

Red Alert: Implies extremely severe weather with a high likelihood of cyclone impact, requiring immediate action and evacuation.

Conclusion: The color-coded warnings by IMD play a crucial role in ensuring public safety and minimizing damage during cyclones by providing clear guidelines on preparedness and response.

Question 6: Discuss the natural resource potentials of ‘Deccan Trap’. (150 Words, 10 Marks)

Introduction: The Deccan Trap is a vast volcanic plateau in India, known for its geological and natural resource significance.


Minerals: The Deccan Trap is rich in minerals such as basalt, which is used in construction and road building.

Agricultural Fertility: The volcanic soils of the Deccan Trap are highly fertile, supporting agriculture.

Water Resources: It contains significant groundwater reserves, vital for irrigation.

Biodiversity: The region hosts diverse flora and fauna, contributing to its ecological importance.

Conclusion: The Deccan Trap offers a blend of mineral wealth, fertile soil, and ecological diversity, making it a valuable natural resource region in India.

Question 7: Examine the potential of wind energy in India and explain the reasons for their limited spatial spread. (150 Words, 10 Marks)

Introduction: Wind energy has substantial potential in India due to its vast geographical expanse and diverse climatic conditions.


Wind Energy Potential: India has a considerable wind energy potential, primarily in coastal regions, hilly areas, and the Thar Desert.

Limited Spatial Spread: Several factors limit the spatial spread: a. Resource Variability: Wind patterns vary across regions, leading to uneven distribution. b. Land Use Conflicts: In densely populated areas, land allocation for wind farms faces conflicts with other land uses. c. Infrastructure: Developing necessary grid infrastructure in remote areas can be costly and challenging. d. Regulatory Hurdles: Complex regulatory processes and land acquisition issues can hinder wind energy projects.

Conclusion: India’s wind energy potential is substantial but faces challenges related to resource variability, land use, infrastructure, and regulations that limit its spatial spread.

Question 8: Explore and evaluate the impact of work from home on family relationships. (150 Words, 10 Marks)

Introduction: The concept of remote work, or “work from home,” has gained prominence in recent years, and it has both positive and negative implications for family relationships.


Positive Impact: a. Work-Life Balance: Remote work can enhance work-life balance, allowing more time for family. b. Reduced Commute: Eliminating commutes can reduce stress and increase family time. c. Flexibility: It allows flexibility to accommodate family needs, like caring for children or elders.

Negative Impact: a. Blurring Boundaries: Remote work can blur the boundaries between work and personal life, leading to burnout. b. Isolation: Isolation from colleagues can affect social interactions and emotional well-being. c. Space Constraints: Inadequate workspace at home can lead to conflicts among family members.

Conclusion: Work from home has the potential to strengthen family relationships through improved work-life balance but also poses challenges related to boundaries and isolation that require careful management.

Question 9: How is the growth of Tier 2 cities related to the rise of a new middle class with an emphasis on the culture of consumption? (150 Words, 10 Marks)

Introduction: The growth of Tier 2 cities in India is closely linked to the emergence of a new middle class that places a strong emphasis on consumer culture.


Economic Growth: The new middle class has benefitted from India’s economic growth, leading to increased purchasing power.

Urbanization: Tier 2 cities offer a lower cost of living and employment opportunities, attracting this new middle class.

Consumer Culture: The new middle class places a high value on consumerism, driving demand for goods and services.

Retail and Services: The growth of Tier 2 cities has spurred the expansion of retail outlets, entertainment venues, and service industries to cater to the consumer culture.

Conclusion: The growth of Tier 2 cities in India is intimately tied to the rise of a new middle class with a strong focus on consumer culture, contributing to economic and urban development.

Question 10: Given the diversities among tribal communities in India, in which specific contexts should they be considered as a single category? (150 Words, 10 Marks)

Introduction: Tribal communities in India exhibit significant diversity in terms of culture, language, and socio-economic conditions, but there are specific contexts where considering them as a single category is appropriate.


Policy Formulation: In the context of policy formulation, recognizing common challenges such as land rights, displacement, and cultural preservation can justify treating tribes as a single category.

Representation: In national and regional forums, tribal communities often seek collective representation to address shared concerns.

Protection of Rights: Legal provisions like the Fifth and Sixth Schedules of the Constitution apply to tribal areas, considering them as a single entity for protective purposes.

Conclusion: While tribal diversity in India is significant, acknowledging them as a single category becomes relevant when addressing collective issues related to policy formulation, representation, and protection of their rights.

Question 11: The political and administrative reorganization of states and territories has been a continuous ongoing process since the mid-nineteenth century. Discuss with examples. (250 Words, 15 Marks)

Introduction: The reorganization of states and territories in India has been a dynamic and continuous process since the mid-19th century, marked by historical, cultural, and administrative factors.


Pre-Independence Period (British Era):

The British reorganized territories for administrative convenience, such as the carving of Madras Presidency, Bengal Presidency, and the formation of provinces.

The Indian Councils Act of 1861 introduced representation in governance, setting the stage for political reorganization.

Post-Independence (1950s):

The States Reorganization Commission (SRC) in 1956 recommended linguistic states to accommodate cultural and linguistic identities. For example, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra were formed on linguistic lines.

The reorganization aimed to balance linguistic diversity with administrative efficiency, providing a sense of identity and self-governance.

Recent Examples (21st Century):

The formation of Telangana in 2014, separated from Andhra Pradesh, addressed regional disparities and aspirations.

The reorganization of Jammu and Kashmir into two Union Territories in 2019 aimed to address security and governance issues.

Political and Administrative Efficiency:

Reorganization seeks to enhance governance efficiency and bring administration closer to the people.

For instance, the bifurcation of larger states like Uttar Pradesh into Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand aimed to improve governance at the regional level.

Conclusion: The political and administrative reorganization of states and territories in India has evolved over time, accommodating linguistic, regional, and cultural identities while striving for administrative efficiency. It reflects India’s commitment to unity in diversity and the continuous evolution of its governance structures.

Question 12: Discuss the main contributions of Gupta period and Chola period to Indian heritage and culture. (250 Words, 15 Marks)

Introduction: The Gupta and Chola periods are celebrated as the Golden Ages of Indian history, marked by significant contributions to Indian heritage and culture.


Gupta Period (4th to 6th century CE):

Art and Architecture:

The Gupta period witnessed remarkable temple architecture, exemplified by the Dashavatara Temple in Deogarh and the rock-cut caves at Ajanta and Ellora.

Sculptures of Hindu deities, such as Vishnu and Shiva, adorned these temples, showcasing intricate carvings and exquisite artistry.


The Gupta era produced literary masterpieces like the works of Kalidasa, including “Shakuntala” and “Meghaduta.”

Sanskrit poetry and drama thrived during this period, contributing to the cultural richness of India.

Mathematics and Astronomy:

Aryabhata’s contributions to mathematics and astronomy are renowned, with his “Aryabhatiya” being a seminal work.

Gupta scholars made significant advancements in geometry, trigonometry, and the concept of zero.

Chola Period (9th to 13th century CE):

Temple Architecture:

The Cholas built grand temples, such as the Brihadeeswarar Temple in Thanjavur, showcasing towering vimanas (towers) and intricate carvings.

These temples remain architectural marvels and UNESCO World Heritage Sites.


The Cholas’ administrative system was advanced, with a well-organized bureaucracy and emphasis on local governance.

They built irrigation infrastructure like the Grand Anicut (Kallanai), facilitating agriculture.


Sangam poetry flourished during this period, celebrating Tamil culture and literature.

Literary works like “Silappadikaram” and “Manimekalai” are notable examples of Chola-era literature.

Maritime Trade:

The Cholas had a powerful navy, which facilitated extensive maritime trade with Southeast Asia, contributing to cultural exchange.

Conclusion: The Gupta and Chola periods left an indelible mark on Indian heritage and culture through their contributions in art, literature, science, governance, and trade, shaping the country’s rich history and cultural legacy.

Question 13: Discuss the significance of the lion and bull figures in Indian mythology, art, and architecture. (250 Words, 15 Marks)

Introduction: Lion and bull figures hold deep significance in Indian mythology, art, and architecture, representing various aspects of spirituality, power, and symbolism.

Body: Lion:

Symbol of Dharma: The lion, associated with Lord Vishnu’s avatar Narasimha, symbolizes the triumph of righteousness (dharma) over evil forces. Narasimha is depicted as a half-man, half-lion deity.

Strength and Courage: In Hinduism, the lion embodies strength and courage, often associated with deities like Goddess Durga, who rides a lion as her mount.

Historical Significance: Lions were also used as symbols by various dynasties, like the Mauryas and the Ashokan Pillar, signifying imperial authority and power.


Sacred Animal: In Hinduism, the bull is venerated as Nandi, the divine vehicle and chief devotee of Lord Shiva. It symbolizes purity, loyalty, and strength.

Religious Ceremonies: Bulls are used in religious ceremonies and processions, especially during Shiva festivals like Maha Shivaratri.

Artistic Motif: The bull often appears in temple carvings and sculptures, reflecting its spiritual significance.

Conclusion: In Indian mythology, art, and architecture, the lion and bull figures carry profound symbolism and spiritual connotations, serving as iconic representations of strength, righteousness, and devotion. Their presence enriches India’s cultural and religious heritage.

Question 14: What are the forces that influence ocean currents? Describe their role in the fishing industry of the world. (250 Words, 15 Marks)

Introduction: Ocean currents are dynamic flows of seawater influenced by various forces, including wind, temperature, and Earth’s rotation, playing a critical role in the fishing industry worldwide.



Wind patterns, like the Trade Winds and Westerlies, drive surface currents.

Example: The Gulf Stream in the Atlantic Ocean is driven by the North Atlantic Trade Winds.


Variations in seawater temperature cause density differences and influence currents.

Example: The California Current, a cold current, supports productive fisheries off the U.S. west coast.

Coriolis Effect:

Earth’s rotation deflects currents in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

Example: The North Equatorial Current is deflected to become the Gulf Stream.


Coastal winds cause nutrient-rich deep water to rise, benefiting marine life.

Example: The Peruvian Current’s upwelling supports the Peruvian anchovy fishery.

Ecosystems and Fisheries:

Ocean currents transport nutrients, plankton, and fish larvae, influencing the distribution of marine species.

Example: The Kuroshio Current in the Pacific Ocean supports diverse fisheries in East Asia.

Conclusion: Ocean currents, shaped by wind, temperature, Earth’s rotation, and upwelling, are instrumental in the fishing industry, as they determine the distribution of marine life and impact the productivity of fisheries in various regions worldwide.

Question 15: Describe the distribution of rubber-producing countries, indicating the major environmental issues faced by them. (250 Words, 15 Marks)

Introduction: Rubber is a critical global commodity, primarily produced in specific regions with unique environmental challenges.


Distribution of Rubber Production:

Leading rubber-producing countries include Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, and India.

These nations have favorable climates for rubber cultivation, particularly in Southeast Asia.

Environmental Issues:

Deforestation: To create rubber plantations, vast tracts of natural forests are often cleared, leading to biodiversity loss and carbon emissions.

Monoculture: Intensive rubber cultivation can result in soil degradation, reduced water quality, and loss of natural habitats.

Chemical Use: Pesticides and fertilizers used in rubber farming can have adverse effects on ecosystems and human health.

Water Stress: Rubber cultivation is water-intensive and can contribute to water scarcity issues.

Land Rights: Rubber plantations sometimes lead to land disputes and conflicts with indigenous communities.

Conclusion: The distribution of rubber-producing countries is concentrated in specific regions, but the environmental challenges associated with rubber cultivation, such as deforestation, monoculture, chemical use, and land rights issues, are significant concerns that need sustainable solutions.

Question 16: Mention the significance of straits and isthmus in international trade. (250 Words, 15 Marks)

Introduction: Straits and isthmuses are geographic features with immense significance in international trade and geopolitics.



Bottlenecks: Straits like the Strait of Hormuz (connecting the Persian Gulf to the Arabian Sea) and the Strait of Malacca (linking the Indian Ocean to the South China Sea) are crucial transit points.

Oil Transportation: The majority of the world’s oil trade passes through these straits, making them strategic chokepoints.

Maritime Security: Control over straits can influence regional security and international politics.


Land Bridge: An isthmus, such as the Isthmus of Suez (connecting Africa and Asia), facilitates land-based transportation and trade routes.

Canal Construction: The construction of canals across isthmuses, like the Suez Canal and the Panama Canal, has transformed global trade by enabling faster transit for ships.

Trade Routes: Isthmuses create shorter trade routes, reducing shipping time and costs.

Conclusion: Straits and isthmuses play a pivotal role in international trade by serving as critical transit points and facilitating the movement of goods and commodities across regions. Their strategic importance extends to maritime security and global commerce.

Question 17: Troposphere is a very significant atmospheric layer that determines weather processes. How? (250 Words, 15 Marks)

Introduction: The troposphere is the lowest layer of the Earth’s atmosphere, and its characteristics make it critically important for weather processes.


Vertical Structure: The troposphere extends from the Earth’s surface to an altitude of approximately 10-15 kilometers, containing most of the atmosphere’s mass.

Temperature Decrease: As altitude increases within the troposphere, temperature generally decreases. This variation in temperature creates convection currents, driving weather processes.

Moisture and Cloud Formation: The troposphere holds nearly all of the Earth’s weather-related moisture. As air rises and cools, it can reach its dew point, leading to cloud formation and precipitation.

Weather Systems: Within the troposphere, weather systems like cyclones, anticyclones, and fronts develop. The interaction of warm and cold air masses in the troposphere results in various weather phenomena.

Tropospheric Turbulence: The troposphere’s instability can lead to turbulence, which affects aviation and weather patterns.

Weather Forecasting: Observations and measurements within the troposphere are critical for weather forecasting, as changes in temperature, pressure, and humidity in this layer directly impact local and global weather patterns.

Conclusion: The troposphere’s characteristics, including its temperature variation, moisture content, and vertical structure, make it the primary atmospheric layer responsible for driving weather processes, shaping weather patterns, and influencing weather forecasting.

Question 18: Analyze the salience of ‘sect’ in Indian society vis-a-vis caste, region, and religion. (250 Words, 15 Marks)

Introduction: In Indian society, the concept of ‘sect’ plays a significant role alongside caste, region, and religion, contributing to the complex social fabric.


Caste and Sect: Sects often emerge within caste groups, reflecting variations in religious practices, rituals, and beliefs. For instance, within Hinduism, there are sects like Shaivism, Vaishnavism, and Shakta.

Region and Sect: Regional variations influence the prevalence and characteristics of sects. In states like Kerala, various religious sects coexist, including the Nair, Ezhava, and Syrian Christian communities.

Religion and Sect: India’s religious diversity accommodates multiple sects within major religions. For example, within Islam, there are Sunni and Shia sects, each with distinct practices and beliefs.

Interplay with Caste: Sects often intersect with caste identities, affecting social hierarchies. The Sikh religion, for instance, incorporates elements of both religion and sect, challenging caste-based discrimination.

Social Identity: Sects can form the basis of social identity, influencing social interaction, marriage, and community life.

Political Influence: Some sects have gained political prominence, affecting regional and national politics.

Conclusion: Sects in Indian society exist alongside caste, region, and religion, adding complexity to social identities and dynamics. They impact various aspects of life, from cultural practices to political influence.

Question 19: Are tolerance, assimilation, and pluralism the key elements in the making of an Indian form of secularism? Justify your answer. (250 Words, 15 Marks)

Introduction: Tolerance, assimilation, and pluralism have played significant roles in shaping India’s unique form of secularism, which is distinct from Western secularism.


Tolerance: Tolerance is a fundamental aspect of India’s secularism. India’s history is marked by the coexistence of diverse religious and cultural traditions, where people of different faiths live side by side. Tolerance allows individuals to practice their religions freely without fear of discrimination or persecution.

Assimilation: Indian secularism also embodies assimilation, where diverse religious and cultural elements often merge, creating a unique syncretic culture. Examples include the blending of Hindu and Islamic architectural styles in monuments like the Taj Mahal or the celebration of festivals like Diwali and Eid by people of different faiths.

Pluralism: Pluralism refers to the acceptance and celebration of religious and cultural diversity. India’s secularism recognizes and respects the multitude of religious and cultural traditions within its borders, fostering a sense of unity in diversity.

Justification: Tolerance, assimilation, and pluralism are indeed key elements in the making of India’s form of secularism. They have allowed India to maintain its unity while celebrating its diversity. Unlike Western secularism, which often involves the separation of religion and state, Indian secularism accommodates and respects various religions and cultures without favoring any particular faith. This approach has contributed to India’s pluralistic society and has been a source of strength in maintaining social harmony.

Question 20: Elucidate the relationship between globalization and new technology in a world of scarce resources, with special reference to India. (250 Words, 15 Marks)

Introduction: Globalization and new technology are intertwined forces that impact how nations like India navigate the challenges of scarce resources in a connected world.


Globalization and Resource Scarcity: Globalization intensifies competition for finite resources. As nations engage in global trade and investment, resource allocation becomes more complex, affecting prices and availability.

Technological Innovation: New technologies enable resource-efficient production and consumption. Innovations like renewable energy, efficient agriculture, and sustainable water management help address resource scarcity.

Resource Access: Globalization enhances India’s access to global markets for resources, such as energy and minerals. However, it also exposes India to price fluctuations and resource dependency.

Environmental Impact: Rapid industrialization and globalization have led to environmental degradation. New technologies are crucial for mitigating environmental challenges and promoting sustainable resource management.

Social Implications: Technology and globalization impact employment patterns. While automation can reduce resource consumption, it can also displace labor in certain industries.

Policy Framework: India’s policies must balance resource security with economic growth. Technological innovation plays a role in shaping policy responses to resource scarcity.

Conclusion: The relationship between globalization and new technology in a world of scarce resources is complex. While globalization provides access to resources and markets, technology is instrumental in addressing resource scarcity sustainably. India’s policies should leverage technology and engage with global partners to navigate these challenges effectively.

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